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Bocklin, Arnold 
Bocklin 




ND 

588 

B6AM 

1906 

C.I 

ROBA 



IARCH, 1906 BOCKLIN PRICE, 15 CENTS 



BOCKLIN 




PART 75 VOLUME 7 







>toa 



1 






MASTERS I N AR' 

A SERIES OF ILLUSTRATE 
MONOGRAPHS: ISSUED MONTHL 



PART 


75 


MARCH, 


19O6 


VOLUM 



o r ftl i tt 



CONTENTS 



National Gallery, . 
OwmedH>y Frau Schbn-Rcnz, V\ 
New Pinakothek, Me 
Schack Gallery, Me 
Schack Gallery, ML 
Owned by Herr Emil Olbermann, Col 
Museum, I 
Schack Gallery, Mv 
Museum F 



Plate I. The Hermit 

Plate II. The Island of Death 

Plate III. The Sport of the Waves 

Plate IV. The Rocky Gorge 

Plate V. The Villa by the Sea 

Plate VI. The Island of Life 

Plate VII. Vita Somnium Breve 

Plate VIII. Pan Frightening a Goatherd 

Plate IX. The Sacred Grove 

Plate X. Naiads at Play Muse 

Portrait of Bocklin by Himself : National Gallery, Berlin 

The Life of Bocklin 

The Art of Bocklin 

Criticisn-.s by Muther, Brintoo. Lemmermayer, Meiianer 

The Works of Bocklin : Descriptions of the Plates and a List of Paintings 
Bocklin Bibliography 

, Phut-tag raving I 1) C. J. Fturi If t.n . lt>n,n. Pnn-wirk b? tbt fvirtll Prut i ttiltH 

A ttmflitt Indixftr frtvimi numbtn will kt ft*4 In thi Utadir' i GuUi If Ptn,dt:.il l.itirm-uri, whlik mtf unit.lt,. 



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LETTERS 
LETTERING 



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The very best I have seen. I have handled many, 
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The most complete of any treatise on letters and 
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|NLY practice will make an accomplished pen- 
draughtsman; but this little treatise teaches 
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MASTERS IN ART 



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GERMAN SCHOOL 





MASTEHS IN AHT PLATE I 

PHOTOGRAVURE BY THE PHOTOGRAPHIC UNION, MUNICH 



[87] 



BOCKLIN 

THE HEBMIT 

NATIONAL GALLEHT, BEBLIN 




u o 

! H 

* 
o 

7 



- 



H I 



a 




MA STEMS IN AHT PLATE IV 

PHOTOGRAVURE BY THE PHOTOGRAPHIC UNION, MUN 



[98] 



IIUC.K I,IN 

THK HOCKY GOHGE 
SCHACK GALLEHT, MUKICH 




MASTERS IX AHT PLATE VII 

rMOTOGKAVUKE BY THE PHOTOGRAPHIC UNION, MUNICH 
[99] 



BOCK LIN 

VITA SOMNIUM BREVE 
MUSEUM, BASLE 




MASTEHS IN AKT PLATE VIII 

rHOTOGKAVUHE V THE fMOTOGHAPHIC UNION. MUNM 

[101] 



BOCKLIN 

PAN FBIGHTENING A GOATHERD 
SCHACK GALLEHT, MUNICH 




POHTHAIT OK BuCKLIN BY HIMSELF NATIONAL i; A I.I.KK V , HKItl.I \ 

Although romantic in conception and idealized, this famous portrait of Bocklin is 
one of the most masterly and the most striking of those which he painted of him- 
self. He wears a black velvet jacket and holds his brush and palette laid with fresh 
paint. Pausing in his work he turns to listen, intently, wonderingly, to sounds com- 
ing from some unseen source. For, invisible to his eyes, though close behind him, 
is the spectral form of Death, playing on a fiddle a motive suggested by the works 
of Holbein and other early German artists. The portrait was painted in Munich in 
1872, when Bocklin was forty-five years old. 

[ioe] 



MASTERS IN ART 



rnolfr UoriUtn 



BORN 1827 : DIED 1901 
GERMAN SCHOOL 



ARNOLD BOCKLIN 1 was born on October 16, 1827, in Basle, Switzer- 
land. His father was at that time a cloth merchant of small means, who, 
not being successful in that line of business, and after an equally unsuccessful 
venture as joint proprietor of a ribbon factory, obtained a position as overseer 
of a similar establishment, earning thereby barely enough to support his large 
family. He managed, however, to have his children well educated, and in 
addition to the regular course of study in the college of the town his sons at- 
tended the Drawing Academy of Basle, where they received an excellent 
training in the art in which Arnold early gave signs of exceptional talent. 

At that day but little interest in matters pertaining to art was taken by the 
worthy and practical burghers of Basle. The town possessed no public art 
gallery, but in a dingy room of the university library was preserved the price- 
less collection of Holbein's works, now housed in the Basle Museum. In this 
room Arnold Bocklin, when a boy, spent many hours, and there can be no 
doubt that a study of Holbein's inimitable creations did much towards awak- 
ening in him an earnest desire to devote his life to art. 

In his rambles about the picturesque country surrounding his native town 
his imagination was still further quickened, and his love of the beautiful fos- 
tered. In these walks his fertile fancy peopled the woods and streams with the 
fabulous creatures made familiar to him by the classic legends which, in his 
school days, had charmed his imagination. His earliest artistic efforts were 
landscapes landscapes in which sometimes a weird effect was produced by 
moonlight and contrasting shadows, sometimes stormy skies and ruined, 
desolate castles were portrayed, but always they were of a nature to appeal 
to the emotions. Art and music and poetry filled the boy's soul, but above all 
did painting, that special form of art which responded to his intuitive love of 
color, grow to be his absorbing passion 

To his wish to become a painter, however, his father was seriously opposed. 
In the elder Bocklin's estimation, there were already too many struggling 

'It is impossible to give in English a phonetic spelling of the name Bocklin. The pronunciation of the 
S in German is similar to the sound of en in the French words feu, jcu, bleu, etc. If, therefore, this pro- 
nunciation be observed, a fairly correct phonetic spelling of the artist's name may be said to be Beuk/lin. 

[107] 



24 MASTERS IN ART 

artists who would never attain success, and he was in no way minded that his 
son should increase their number. But the boy's mother, believing more 
firmly in his genius, did all in her power to enable him to carry out his desire, 
and finally, with the assistance of a friend who recognized the lad's talent, 
a reluctant consent was wrung from the father, and Arnold, then eighteen 
years old, was sent to Diisseldorf to begin his studies in the Academy there. 

Under the landscape-painter Johann Wilhelm Schirmer he proved himself 
a diligent pupil; but Schirmer, who soon saw how unusual were the young 
man's talents, and realized that the vitiated romanticism of Diisseldorf had 
little to offer such a fresh and original genius, advised him to go to Brussels, 
where he would find a greater stimulus to his art. Accordingly, after about 
two years in Diisseldorf, Bocklin went to Belgium, and in Brussels and Ant- 
werp learned much from his study of the coloring of the early Flem sh painters, 
and of the glowing canvases of the later master of that school Rubens. 

From Belgium he journeyed to Geneva in order to pursue his studies with 
Alexandre Calame, but after only a few weeks in the Swiss landscape-painter's 
studio he again turned his steps northward, this time to Paris. There the 
works of Delacroix, of Couture, and, above all, of Corot, impressed him; but 
far deeper than that produced by any painted picture was the impression left 
upon his mind by the bloody scenes which filled the city's streets when the 
February Revolution of 1848 broke forth. Bocklin never forgot the sights he 
witnessed then, and even in after years it was with the recollection of them 
still fresh in his memory that he painted some of his scenes of combat. 

The young painter's stay in Paris was of short duration. He had not yet 
found what his soul craved, and after a few months spent in his native town 
for the purpose of fulfilling his military duties by serving for a prescribed 
length of time in the regular army, he wandered farther south, to the Mecca 
of all young artists of that day Italy. 

In Rome Bocklin found many congenial spirits in the little colony of Ger- 
man and Swiss painters and poets; Dreber, Feuerbach, Begas, Von SchefFel, 
Paul Heyse, and others, became his warm friends, and in the strangely poetic 
beauty of the Roman Campagna he found at last a fulfilment of his artistic 
yearnings. Here in Italy was the scenery his brush could paint with loving 
sympathy; here were the rich colors he loved; here could he find the fit setting 
for those nymphs and fauns and satyrs, those fabulous monsters, those gods 
and goddesses, with which his fancy teemed. Long hours spent in wandering 
about the Campagna, absorbed in dreams while his companions sedulously 
sketched this or that bit of rock or tree or picturesque group of peasants, re- 
sulted in some ideal landscape painted later in his studio from memory, in 
which with marvelous effect the spirit of the scene was rendered. 

What were days of poverty to one so rich in fancy and so happy in his crea- 
tive power as this young and unknown Swiss painter! And to add to his happi- 
ness, but by no means to alleviate his poverty, he must needs fall romantically 
in love, after only a few days' acquaintance, with a young Roman orphan girl, 
Angelina Pascucci by name, whose radiant classic beauty was her only mar- 
riage portion, but who became to Bocklin a lifelong inspiration. The mar- 

[108] 



BOCKLIN 25 

riage took place in the summer of 1853, and in spite of the difference in nation- 
ality, in religion, language, and customs, to say nothing of the wearing trials 
of extreme poverty, it was and always continued to be an absolutely happy one. 
Frau Bocklin's more practical nature saved her husband from many a diffi- 
culty, and her loving, watchful care of him in times of sorrow or of discourage- 
ment was untiring. 

Bocklin's early married life was full of hardship, for with a young wife and 
an increasing family of children he found it no easy task to make both ends 
meet. Now and then his friends were able to help him to sell a picture, but 
purchasers were few, and he was often reduced to sore straits to earn the money 
necessary for the support of his family. When his picture of ' Pan pursuing a 
Nymph' was bought by a Viennese lady, and a second version of the subject 
was ordered by Herr Wedekind, the German consul at Palermo, the future 
began to look brighter; but the money which the sale of these two canvases 
brought in, went but a little way towards the relief of his circumstances, 
and finally, discouraged and sick at heart, he resolved to leave Rome and re- 
turn with his young wife and two little children to his father's house in Basle. 

No better fortune, however, awaited him there. A landscape which he 
sent to an exhibition in his native town was greeted with derision by the 
matter-of-fact citizens of Basle, who were wholly unaccustomed to such 
ideal scenes and startling colors. 

It was just at that time that Bocklin received from Herr Wedekind, his 
former patron, a commission to decorate in fresco the walls of the consul's 
dining-room in Hanover, and being discouraged by the reception his land- 
scape had been accorded by his fellow-citizens, he gladly agreed to undertake 
the task. In the early spring of 1858 he removed with his family to Hanover, 
and at once set to work upon a scheme of decoration illustrating in five great 
frescos, rich in imaginative quality and able in composition and execution, 
the relation of man to fire. 

With the exception of a small sketch for the first picture, no preparatory 
drawings were made, but, having clearly in his mind what he wished to repre- 
sent, the artist painted his subjects, without model of any kind, directly upon 
the walls. In four months the work was completed, but unfortunately it did 
not find favor in the eyes of Herr Wedekind; a temporary misunderstanding 
occurred between him and the artist, and Bocklin, who had in the first place 
agreed to undertake the work for comparatively slight remuneration, found it 
difficult to obtain the stipulated reward for his labors. . . . 

In March, 1859, there appeared, in the exhibition of the Society of Artists in 
Munich, a large picture, entitled ' Pan among the Reeds,' which aroused great 
interest, attracting the notice of all by the singular originality of its subject and 
treatment. It was said that the artist, whose name was unknown in Munich, 
was one Arnold Bocklin, a Swiss painter, who with a beautiful young Italian 
wife and a family of children had recently come to the city, and at that very 
moment, poor and in the utmost need, he and two of his children were lying 
ill with typhoid fever. 

Relief came to Bocklin through his great picture of Pan. This work, a 

[109] 



26 MASTERS IN ART 

large version of a subject he had previously painted in Rome, was bought for 
the New Pinakothek the gallery of modern paintings in Munich, and 
from that moment the tide turned. Bocklin's strong constitution enabled him 
to recover from the treacherous fever, but one of his children died from its 
effects, and the blow was a crushing one to the painter, who found it hard, 
now that success seemed about to crown his efforts, to respond to the cordial 
welcome extended him by the artist community in Munich. Through his 
friend of old Roman days, the poet and writer Paul Heyse, he was brought to 
the notice of Baron, afterwards Count, von Schack, in whom he found so 
munificent a patron that to-day the Schack Gallery in Munich contains one of 
the most valuable collections of the artist's works. 

In the autumn of 1860 Bocklin was offered a professorship, as also were 
Begas and Lenbach, in the newly established Academy of Arts in Weimar. He 
accepted the position, but the atmosphere of the little scholastic town, im- 
pregnated as it was with literary memories, had nothing to offer to the artistic 
aspirations of the young professors, who found their more modern ideas op- 
posed by those of the conservative school. One by one they shook the dust of 
Weimar from their feet and sought other and more stimulating fields. 

For Bocklin's art this was an unproductive period. 'Diana Hunting' and 
'Pan frightening a Goatherd' were the principal pictures painted during his 
two years' stay in Weimar, where much time was devoted to an indulgence of 
his taste for science and mathematics in the construction of a flying-machine. 
His interest in aeronautics amounted to a passion at times almost as absorbing 
to him as his art, and although his efforts to solve the problem of a flying- 
machine were never crowned with success, to the end of his life he did not 
abandon hope of accomplishing his aim. 

Upon leaving Weimar, Italy was again Bocklin's objective point. This 
time he visited Naples, Capri, and Pompeii, fascinated by the colors of the 
Mediterranean, and falling anew under the spell of those classic stories with 
which its shores are replete. Pompeii possessed for him a deep interest, and 
Naples aroused a feeling scarcely less intense. 

The year 1862 found Bocklin once more in Rome. During the four follow- 
ing years he worked industriously, and among his patrons had the gratifica- 
tion to count several from his native town. In the hope of receiving there still 
further commissions, he returned with his family to Basle in the early 
autumn of 1866. His hopes were not disappointed. Soon after his arrival he 
was asked to paint in fresco the walls of the garden house of his friend Herr 
Sarasin, and, a far more important work, was commissioned by the munici- 
pality of Basle to decorate the walls of the stairway of the newly erected Art 
Museum of the city. In addition to these two monumental tasks Bocklin 
painted many masterpieces during his stay in Basle, among which may be 
mentioned ' The Road to Emmaus,' ' The Rocky Gorge,' ' The Ride of Death,' 
'Furies pursuing a Murderer,' all now in the Schack Gallery in Munich, and 
many more equally original in conception, as well as a number of portraits. 
In addition to these works he gave proof of his skill in plastic art, in which he 
was almost as gifted as in painting, by modeling for the garden facade of the 

[110] 



BOCK LIN 27 

Kunsthalle six masks caricaturing with the most grotesque humor the alder- 
men of Basle, whose stubborn narrow-mindedness had so often opposed itself 
to his artistic ideas. 

To Munich the painter next turned his steps, and between July, 1871, and 
the autumn of 1874, made that city his home. These three years were pro- 
ductive of many paintings marked by marvelous creative power: 'The Battle 
of the Centaurs,' recalling Rubens in its energy and force, 'Triton and Nereid,' 
a ' Pieta,' ' Pan Fishing,' the portraitofhimself with Death, and numerous 
Other works feemingwifh'an apparentIy~lliudiUU;>l.iblc imagination. 

Munich, hoWeverTwas not satisfying to Bocklin's nature, and accordingly 
to Italy he once more returned, this time fixing his abode in Florence, where 
eleven happy years passed before his restless spirit again urged him on. 

This Florentine period realized the highest attainment of his art. The in- 
fluence of the Renaissance masters of Italy is felt in the deep poetic meaning 
of the pictures painted at this time. The colors, sometimes rich and glowing, 
sometimes light and almost startling in their bright, vivid hues, again deep and 
somber, reflect his varying moods. The composition is more balanced, the 
technique more finished, and, as always, the creative power marvelous in its 
unending variety. 'The Sleeping Diana/ 'Springtime,' 'The Regions of the 
Blessed,' 'The Island of Death,' 'Prometheus,' 'Sport of the Waves,' 
'The Sacred Grove,' 'Autumn Thoughts,' 'The Silence of the Forest,' are 
among his most famous works of these years. 

The hardest struggles of Bocklin's life now seemed ended. His days of 
storm and stress were over. Recognition of his genius, in quarters where rec- 
ognition was of value, had come at last, and (although his works were still in- 
comprehensible to the general public', which continued to shake its head over 
the extraordinary subjects and the strong colors of the canvases which from 
time to time he sent to the various exhibitions in Germany, they were no longer 
greeted with derision, but were sufficiently in demand to bring prices which 
enabled the artist to live in comparative comfort. In his home in Florence he 
was surrounded by a host of friends, among whom were many of the best- 
known German writers, painters, poets, and sculptors of the day. 

It was in 1885, when Bocklin was approaching his sixtieth year, that he re- 
crossed the Alps to his own country, and, for the sake of his children's educa- 
tion, settled in Zurich. During his sojourn there he was the recipient of many 
public honors. At the International Exhibition of 1888 he was given a first- 
class medal; in the following year he was named honorary doctor of philosophy 
in the University of Zurich, and in 1890 the right of citizenship was bestowed 
upon him by the town. 

His artistic influence became more and more wide-spread, and at the time 
of the Munich Exhibition of 1890 he was recognized as one of the foremost of 
modern German painters, not only in artistic circles, but was accepted as such 
by the public at large. It was at this triumphant period of his career, and 
when he was in the full strength of his powers, that the startling news was 
spread abroad that the master had been stricken by apoplexy. This was in 
May, 1892. 

[Ill] 



28 MASTERS IN ART 

His recovery from the attack was very slow. When he was strong enough to 
bear the journey he was taken to the land he loved best, and there, in a villa 
in Fiesole, near Florence, gradually regained his health, and once more re- 
sumed his work. The pictures painted at this time show no diminution of 
power; the 'Polyphemus,' the 'Venus Genetrjx,' and a portrait of himself at 
>! his easel are as original in conception, as fresh in color, and technically as 
fine as his earlier or his later achievements. 

In 1895 Bocklin became the owner of a villa in San Domenico between 
Florence and Fiesole, and there in that picturesque spot overlooking the beau- 
tiful valley of the Arno, surrounded by those he loved, the evening of his life 
was spent. To the last he devoted himself to his art, and to that other art, 
music, which he also dearly loved, and in which, without any scientific train- 
ing, he was unusually skilled, playing delightfully upon various instruments. 
In his quiet home reports reached him from the outer world of honors showered 
upon him, and of the great festivals held all over Germany, as well as in his 
native Basle, upon the occasion of his seventieth birthday; but with these 
flattering testimonies to his genius, as with the neglect he had previously and 
for so many years endured without complaint, he seemed in no way concerned. 
Art was for him something above, beyond, apart from all that the expres- 
' sion of his deepest feeling, his highest aspiration 

Arnold Bocklin has been described by those who knew him as a man of few 
words, reserved and somewhat diffident with strangers, but frank and in- 
genuous with his friends. Warm-hearted and generous in disposition, he was 
the very soul of honor, never stooping to a meanness of any kind. Frugal, in- 
dustrious, and simple in his tastes, he despised all outward show, cared nothing 
for the conventionalities of life, and was wholly indifferent to the extravagant 
praises heaped upon his name when, finally, fame and glory such as fall to the 
lot of few men during lifetime, were awarded him. 

In person he was tall and powerfully built. His shoulders were broad and 
his carriage erect. His physical strength was unusual. Even at fifty he found it 
no tax to paint for eight consecutive hours, and then not only when at his easel, 
but also when engaged upon wall frescos, in a position necessarily more 
strained. His head was finely shaped, his eyes were blue and clear, and 
his expression kindly. When a young man he had the air of a typical painter 
or poet, but as he grew older this look completely disappeared, and in middle 
life there was nothing in his decidedly military appearance to suggest either 
the one or the other. In his dress he was always scrupulously particular; in 
short, nothing in the outer man gave token of the intensity and passion of his 
artistic nature. 

In his beautiful villa in San Domenico, Bocklin's closing years passed peace- 
fully. He worked almost to the last, the canvases entitled ' Melancholy,' ' War,' 
and 'The Plague' being painted the year before his death. His wife and chil- 
dren and grandchildren were with him as life drew near its end, and his son, 
Carlo, an architect and later a painter, was his father's right hand in all prac- 
tical affairs. Repeated apoplectic strokes gradually shattered his strength and 
rendered him more and more helpless; finally, an attack of pneumonia ha- 

[112] 



B 6 C K L I N 29 

stened his death, which occurred on January 1 6, 1901. He was buried two 
days later, with simple but touching services, in the Campo Santo degli Allori, 
just outside one of the gates of Florence. 



Cije art of Bbcfclm 

RICHARD MUTHER 'THE HISTORY OF MODERN PAINTING' 

ARNOLD BOCKLIN is a landscape-painter in his very essence, and he is \ 
moreover the greatest landscape-painter of the nineteenth century, be- 
side whom even the Fontainebleau group seem one-sided specialists. Every 
one of the latter had a peculiar type of landscape, and a special hour in the day 
which appealed to his feelings more distinctly than any other. One loved 
spring and dewy morning, another the clear cold day, another the threatening 
majesty of the storm, the flashing effects of sportive sunbeams, or the evening, 
after sunset, when colors fade from view. But Bocklin is as inexhaustible as 
infinite nature itself. In one place he celebrates the festival of spring with its 
burden of beauty. In another, nature shines, and blooms, and breathes her 
balnrtrfaTl the colors of summer. And besides such lovely idyls, he has painted , 
with puissant sublimity as many complaining elegies and tempestuous trag- 
edies. Here the somber autumnal landscapes, with their tall black cypresses, 'i 
are lashed by the rain and the howling storm. There, lonely islands or grave, 
half-ruined towers, tangled with creepers, rise dreamily from a lake, mourn- 
fully hearkening to the repining murmur of the waves. Bocklin has painted 
everything: the graceful and heroic, the solitude and the waste, the solemnly 
sublime and the darkly tragic, passionate agitation and demoniacal fancy, the 
strife of foaming waves and the eternal rest of rigid masses of rock, the wild 
uproar of the sky and the still peace of flowery fields. The compass of his 
moods is as much greater than that of the French classicists as Italy is greater 
than Fontainebleau. 

For Italy is Bocklin's home as a landscape-painter, and the moods of nature 
there are more in number than Poussin ever painted. Grave and sad and 
grandiose is the Roman Campagna, with the ruins of the street of sepu chers. . 
Hidden like the Sleeping Beauty lie the Roman villas in his pictures, in their 
sad combination of splendor and decay, of life and death, of youth and age. 
Behind weather-beaten grotto-wells and dark green nooks of yew, white busts * 
and statues gleam like phantoms. Huge cypresses ot the growth of centuries 
stand gravely in the air, tossing their heads mournfully when the wind blows. 
Then at a bound we are at Tivoli, and the whole scenery is changed. Great 
fantastic rocks rise straight into the air, luxuriantly mantled by ivy and para- 
sitic growths. Trees and shrubs take root in the clefts. And the floods of the 
Anio plunge headforemost into the depths with a roar of sound like a legion of 
demons thunder-stricken by some higher power. Then comes Naples, with its 
glory of flowers and its moods of evening glowing in deep ruby. Farther away 

[113] 



30 MASTERS IN ART 

he paints the Homeric world of Sicily, with its crags caressed or storm-beaten 
by the wave, its blue grottos, and its deep, glowing splendors of changing 
color. . . . 

Bocklin has no more rendered an exact portrait of the scenery of Italy than 
the classic masters of France sought to represent in a photographic way dis- 
tricts in the forest of Fontainebleau. His whole life, like theirs, was a renewed 
and perpetual wooing of nature. As a boy he looked down from his attic in 
Basle upon the heaving waters of the Rhine. When he was in Rome he wan- 
dered daily in the Campagna to feast his eyes upon its grave lines and colors. 
And the moods with which he was inspired by nature and the phenomena he 
observed were stored in his mind as though in a great emporium. Then his 
imagination went through another stage. That "organic union of figures and 
landscape" which the representatives of "heroic landscape" had surmised and 
endeavored to attain by a reasoned method through the illustration of passages 
in poetry, took place in Bocklin by the force of intuitive conception. ;The mood 
excited in him by a landscape is translated into an intuition of life. In his pic- 
tures nature laughs with those who are glad, mourns with those who weep, 
sheds her light upon the joyful, and envelops tortured spirits in storm and the 
terror of thunder. . . . 

In Bocklin's earlier pictures the accessory figures are placed in close rela- 
tion with the landscape in a manner entirely similar. But his great creations 
reach a higher level. Having begun by extending the lyrical mood of a land- 
scape to his figures, he finally succeeded in populating nature with beings 
which seem the final condensation of the life of nature itself, the tangible em- 
bodiment of that spirit of nature whose cosmic action in the water, the earth, 
and the air he had glorified in one of his youthful works, the frescos of the 
Basle Museum. In such pictures he has no forerunners whatever in the more 
recent history of art. His principle of creation rests, it might be said, upon the 
same overwhelming feeling for nature which brought forth the figures of Greek 
myth. When the ancient Greek stood before a waterfall he gave human form 
to what he saw. His eye beheld the outlines of beautiful nude women, nymphs 
of the spot, in the descending volume of the cascade; its foam was their flutter- 
ing hair, and in the rippling of the water he heard their splashing and their 
laughter. 

The beings which live in Bocklin's pictures owe their origin to a similar ac- 
tion of the spirit. He hears trees, rivers, mountains, and universal nature 
whisper as with human speech. Every flower, every bush, every flame, the 
rocks, the waves, and the meadows, dead and without feeling as they are to 
the ordinary eye, have to his mind a vivid existence of their own. In his im- 
agination every impression of nature condenses itself into figures that may be 
seen. As a dragon issues from his lair to terrify travelers in the gloom of a 
mountain ravine, and as the avenging Furies rise in the waste before a mur- 
derer, so in the still, brooding noon, when a shrill tone is heard suddenly and 
without a cause, the Grecian Pan lives once again for Bocklin Pan who 
startles the goatherd from his dream by an eerie shout, and then whinnies in 
mockery of the terrified fugitive. The cool, wayward, splashing element of 

[114] 



BOCKLIN 31 

water takes shape as a graceful nymph; the fine mists which rise from the 
water-source become embodied as a row of merry children whose vaporous 
figures float lazily through the shining clouds of spring. And the secret voices 
that live amid the silence of the wood press round him, and the phantom born 
of the excited scenesTxicomes a ghostly unicorn advancing with noiseless step, 
and bearing upon his back a maiden of legendary story. The form ^f Death 
stumbling past cloven trees in rain and tempest, as he rides his pale horse, ap- 
pears to him in a waste and chill autumnal region, where stands a ruined 
castle in lurid illumination. A sacred grove, lying in insular seclusion and 
fringed with venerable old trees that rise straight into the air, rustling as they 
bend their heads towards each other, is peopled, as at a word of enchantment, 
with grave priestly figures robed in white, which approach in solemn proces- 
sion and fling themselves down in prayer before the sacrificial fire. The lonely 
waste of the seajs not brought home to him with sufficient force tylTwide 
fldoTofwaves, with gulls indolently flying beneath a low and leaden sky; so 
he paints a flat crag emerging from the waves, and upon its crest, over which 
the billows sweep, the shy dwellers of the sea bathe in the light. Naiads and 
tritons assembled for a gamesome ride over the sea typify the fleeing hide-and- 
seek of the waves. Yet there is nothing forced, nothing merely ingenious, 
nothing literary, in these inventions. The figjures are not placed in nature 
with deliberate calculation; they are an embodied mood of nature; they are 
children of the landscape and no mere accessories. 

Bocklin's power of creating types in embodying these beings of his imagina- 
tion is a thing unheard of in the whole history of art. /He has represented his 
centaurs and satyrs and fauns and sirens so vividly and impressively that they 
have become ideas as currently acceptable as if they were simple incomposite 
beings."? He has seen the awfulness of the sea at moments when the secret be- 
ings of^the deep emerge, and he kllows a glimpse into the fabulous reality of 
their as yet unexplored existence; For all beings which hover swarming in the 
atmosphere around, have their dwellings in the trees, or their haunts in rocky 
deserts, he has found new and convincing figures. Everything which was 
created in this field before his time the works of Diirer, Mantegna, and 
Salvator Rosa not excepted was an adroit sport with forms already estab- 
lished by the Greeks, and a transposition of Greek statues into a pictorial 
medium. With B6cklin,who, instead of illustrating mythology, himself creates 
it, a new power of inventing myths was introduced. His creations are not the 
distant issue of nature, but corporeal beings, full of ebullient energy, individ- 
ualized through and through, and stout, lusty, and natural. 

And only a slight alteration in the truths of nature has sufficed him for the 
creation of such chimerical beings. As a landscape-painter he stands with all 
his fibers rooted in the earth, although he seems quite alienated from this 
world of ours, and his fabulous creatures make the same convincing impres- 
sion because they have been created with all the inner logical congruity of 
nature, and delineated under close relationship to actual fact with the same 
numerous details as the real animals of the earth. For his tritons, sirens, and 
mermaids, with their prominent eyes and their awkward bodies covered with 

[115] 



32 MASTERS IN ART 

bristly hair, he may have made studies from seals and walruses. His obese and 
short-winded tritons, with shining red faces and flaxen hair dripping with 
moisture, are good-humored old men with a quantity of warm blood in their 
veins, who love and laugh and drink new wine. His fauns may be met with 
amongst the shepherds of the Campagna, swarthy, strapping fellows dressed 
in goatskin after the fashion of Pan. It is chiefly the color lavished upon them 
which turns them into children of an unearthly world, where other suns are 
shining, and other stars. 

In the matter of color, also, the endeavors of the nineteenth century reach a 
climax in Bocklin. He was the first in Germany who revealed the marvelous 
power in color for rendering moods of feeling and its inner depth of musical 
sentiment. Even in those years when the brown tone of the galleries pre- 
vailed everywhere, color was allowed in his pictures to have its own independ- 
ent existence, apart from its office of being a merely subordinate characteristic 
of forjn. For him green was thoroughly green, blue was divinely blue, and red 
was jubilantly red. At the very time when Richard Wagner lured the colors of 
sound from music, with a glow and light such as no master had kindled before, 
Bocklin's symphonies of color streamed forth like a crashing orchestra. The 
whole scale, from the most somber depth to the most chromatic light, was at 
his command. In his pictures of spring the color laughs, rejoices, and exults. 
In 'The Island, of Death ' itjegms as though a veil of crape were spread over 
the sea, the sky, and the trees. His splendid sea-green, his transparent blue 
sky, his sunset flush tinged with violet haze, his yellow-brown rocks, his gleam- 
ing red sea-mosses, and the white bodies of his maidens are always arranged in 
new, glowing, sensuous harmonies. Many of his pictures have such an en- 
snaring brilliancy that the eye is never weary of feasting upon their floating 
splendor. Indeed, later generations will probably do him honor as the greatest 
colqr-poerXof the century. 

CHRISTIAN BRINTON T H S- ( C RIT 1C ' 1901 

AINOLD BOCKLIN was a posthumous expression of Teutonic- roman- 
ticisjn^ He flashed forth, as it were, after the lights had simmered out, 
bringing into being a new, disturbing beauty, a poetry hitherto undivined, and 
personal endowments riper than any since the Renaissance. Quietly, without 
pose or parade, he accomplished for German art what Goethe had already 
done for German poetry and Wagner for German music. Through the me- 
dium of a rich-set palette he revealed to Germans -and to the world the 
Germanic soul. . . . 

While in essence Bocklin's art is romantic, it is free from the routine faults 
of romanticism. His sense of form is Grecian and his color entirely modern in 
its breadth and brilliancy. The persuasive charm of his classic scenes is chiefly 
due to the anti-classic and often frankly humorous, dionysian manner in which 
they are presented. Although there is often sharp contrast between the theme 
and its treatment, the whole is conceived with such intensity and is so vividly 
realized that effect never fails. To the cherished quality of dealing unfettered 
with the past, Bocklin added a definite, detailed interpretation of the present. 

[116] 



BOCKLIN 

With few exceptions his works involve a combination, on even terms, of land- 
scape or marine with figure, and in this province he is unrivaled. An intimate 
accord between these two elements is always preserved; nowhere is there the 
slightest loss of poise. Though he turned, through affinity, towards the south 
across the Alps the conventional Italianism of Poussin, Claude, or the early 
Corot finds no echo or even equivalent in Bocklin's art. With no sacrifice of 
ideality he gives each subject a fresh, engaging actuality, an individual, verid- 
ical setting which is its own vindication. By a species of localization which is 
never slavish and always full of suggestion, always tempered by the essential 
beauty of the scene, he succeeds in making romance real and reality romantic. 

The formula of Bocklin's art consists of peopling the sea or sky, shore or 
wood, with creatures of tradition or of sheer imagination. Its animus is a pan- 
tbeistische Naturpoesie, illustrating the kinghip of maqjmdjiature, a cpncep- 
tion both Hellenic and Germanic, which arose from a blending: of that which 
his spirit caught at in the world about him and that which came through the 
gates of fancy and of fable. . . . 

Whafawes the neophyte and remains the cardinal glory of Bocklin's 
canvases is the depth and splendor of their coloration. First and last 
Bocklin was a colorist. He chose by instinct only the most alluring hues, 
the pure radiance of far stars, the vivid grotto-blue of the sea, the copper- 
brown of a faun's skin, or the viridescence of water serpent. No man studied 
nature more closely or surprised so many of her secrets. The Campagna, the 
clear vistas of the Oberland, foam-lashed rocks along the Tuscan coast, here 
a dark stretch of wood, there a splash of light, all produced an accumulation 
of stimuli which, coupled with an indelible memory and remarkable powers of 
visualization, made Bocklin one of the few really sovereign colorists. While 
his sense of form was not so acutely developed his-drawing of the nude be- 
ing the reverse of academic it is impossible not to feel that the sum-total 
may have gained rather than suffered through this fact, for, as it is, nothing 
seems to reach beyond or fall below an irreproachable ensemble. 

FRITZ LEMMERMAYER 'UNSERE ZEIT' 1888 

BOCKLIN is preeminently a modern painter. Not that he records the 
passing events of the day, nor expends himself on the representation of 
trifling genre pictures, nor does he concern himself with that homely style 
which aims at a truthful portrayal of some household scene a mother sur- 
rounded by her little ones, or a lady occupied with her embroidery. Nothing 
of this nature is to be found in Bocklin's work, but instead, the wings of his 
far-reaching fancy transport him to distant lands to Greece, to Italy and 
there in rich and glowing colors he paints whatever most deepjy stirs his soul. 
It is not, indeed, what he paints that is modern, but bow he paints it. 

Landscapes gloomy and impassioned like Salvator Rosa's or Poussin s, or 
enchanting in their exuberant colors like the scenery of Italy, or ^ark and 
mysterious, as i haunted by invisible spirits, or stormy and tempestuous and 
filled with fabulous monsters, with nymphs, with naiads, centaurs, and satyrs 
such are the subjects Bocklin conjures upon his canvas, not always care- 

[117] 



34 MASTERS IN ART 

fully nor technically correct, not wholly free from defects in drawing, but in- 
variably powerful and imaginative, ideal in color, extraordinary in conception, 
rich in feeling, and unquestionably inspired. . . . 

The irresistible attraction in Bocklin's works, that wherein above all else 
the great charm of his painting lies, is his manner of imparting life to nature, 
of giving her individuality and investing her with a soul. It seems as if his 
landscapes were not painted for their own sakes alone, but as if the artist had 
been attracted by the ruling power of the spirits of nature, and to them he 
gives material form, or in some mysterious way suggests their presence. His 
understanding of nature is profound and comprehensive. To him she is not 
only the beneficent mother rich in blessings, bringing joy and gladness and 
pouring her gifts upon the world with lavish hand from her never-failing horn 
of plenty, but he sees in her as well a demoniac Fury who with fiendish exulta- 
tion diffuses terror and suffering, and whose cruel pleasure it sometimes is to 
visit the world with misery, death, and destruction. Nature in her gentle 
moods he paints with delicate and loving touch; when she is sad or when she 
is violent he renders her with impassioned power. . . . 

Bocklin is the painter of the woods, the painter of sacred groves and grottos, 
of smiling scenes and of desolate places, of the storm and of the sea. To the 
young life that stirs in nature, and to the mighty death which devastates her, 
his brush has given sublime immortality. But unique and ideal though he be 
as a landscape-painter, it. would be but an incomplete picture of the man to 
portray him in this light alone, for as a figure-painter he is a master no less 
marvelous. His canvases in which figures alone are depicted are limited in 
number, but those that he has painted show that he had the power of appealing 
to the most varied emotions. In his landscapes figures are almost always in- 
troduced sometimes human, more often fabulous. Their presence never 
seems accidental; they are organic parts of the whole design; never meaning- 
less accessories, but symbolic forms emanating naturally and harmoniously 
from the spirit of the scene in a word, the actual embodiment, the allegor- 
ical expression, of the scene itself. ABRIDGED FROM THE GERMAN 

FRANZ-HERMANN MEISSNER 'GAZETTE DES BEAUX-ARTS' 1893 

ARNOLD BOCKLIN is one of the strongest personalities one of the 
most singular and most remarkable in the whole history of art. Al- 
though neither in his method nor in the choice of his subjects, taken for the 
most part from Greek mythology, does he belong to the German romanticists, 
he is nevertheless fundamentally a_ romantic painter romantic in all the 
essential characteristics of his genius, in^He~mrens1ty, the marvelous depth of 
his feeling, in his power of individualizing, in his strong vein of humor, in his 
anti-classic, wholly mythological and dionysian manner of interpreting classic 
subjects. His romanticism then may be said to be a combination of the Teu- 
tonic and the Hellenic; the Greek spirit and the German spirit are the two 
governing impulses of his genius. . . . 

Bocklin's originality was manifested very early in his career quite as clearly 
by his inventive power as by his technique. With few exceptions it is only in 
his youthful works that any trace can be found of outside influences. These 

[118] 



BOCKLIN 35 

influences are chiefly those of his master Schirmer, of Corot, whose early works 
he saw and admired when in Paris, and, above all, of Poussin, who throughout 
Bocklin's youth was his model for the calm and simple grandeur of his lines 
and for his coloring. But Bocklin soon freed himself from all these influences 
and struck out upon his own path. So pronounced did his originality become, 
that if we would find any painter with whom to compare him we should have 
to go back to Giorgione. In more than one respect, indeed, he recalls that 
great Venetian master: in the glowing brilliancy and delicate harmony of his 
colors, for example, and in his wonderful power of imparting life to his figures. 

Like.Giorgioneynd all the old masters, Bocklin attaches primary importance 
jto composition. His own is indeed truly magistral, and, so far as I have seen, 
faultless. He has a perfect understanding of the necessity of subordinating all 
details Jo the main theme. And he is as well a born_colorist, a veritable mu- 
sician in color, as skilful in producing an effect by lovely harmonies as by the 
boldest contrasts. His color seems to be the needful clothing for his massive 
sculpturesque figures of man and of beast, those strange forms which look as 
if they belonged to some prehistoric world. 

To impart to his creations the quality of life, in whatsoever demoniac a 
form, Bocklin made use of a method of his own invention. This consisted in 
a peculiar use of distemper in the early stages, followed by an application of 
varnish. He thus obtained a depth, a brilliancy, and a relief such as are 
und in the works of the old masters, but are never met with in those of 
the~painters of to-day. 

It would seem as if the effect produced by the use of this method of 
Bocklin's were another demonstration of his intimately uniting the romanti- 
cism of Germany with the beauty of the antique. Such a union was only pos- 
sible on the sole ground on which romanticism and antiquity could come to- 
gether on the ground of natural myths; and it was to these old myths that 
Boeklin invariably turned by choice; they alone could satisfy both his Ger- 
manic fondness for fantastic legends and his love of classic pantheism. His 
types of men, of demigods, of animals, were, generally speaking, conceived 
independently of all tradition; they are wholly the products of arijdeaLworld, 
made up of elements the most fantastic, the most uncouth, and the most poetic 
of the world of reality, and they are endowed with such beauty, a beauty so 
directly the outcome of the pure Hellenic inspiration, that even subjects of the 
most trifling nature at once attain the proportions of monumental and classic 
works. . . . 

For the greater part of his life Bocklin met with opposition from his con- 
temporaries, but from year to year, with ever-increasing power, his strong in- 
dividuality asserted itself. His style is so markedly the product of his own 
personal temperament that it hardly seems as if he could have continuators. 
And in truth, it cannot be said that he founded any school in the strict sense 
of the word, although numerous painters have imitated him more or less 
closely. But his influence has extended so far beyond all imitations that in 
addition to his personal originality Bocklin will undoubtedly prove to have 
been one of the leaders of modern German art. ABRIDGED FROM THE 
FRENCH 

[119] 



36 MASTERSINART 

Cije Works of 

DESCRIPTIONS OF THE PLATES 
THE HERMIT* PLATE I 

THIS picture is, perhaps, the most popular of Bocklin's works. The story 
that it tells is simple, the spirit that it breathes poetic and full of tender 
charm. In the light of early morning an aged hermit is playing on his violin a 
hymn of praise before the image of the Virgin, which stands within a niche 
in the wall of his cell. And as he plays, three little angels, attracted by the 
melody, have come down from heaven, and, all unseen, cluster around the 
hermit's humble dwelling. Two have perched upon the broad rim of a 
wooden partition, absorbed in enjoyment of the music. The third, a slen- 
der little fellow with rainbow-colored wings, stands on tiptoe outside, peep- 
ing curiously through the window at the scene within. 

The color-scheme increases the poetic effect. The sky is illumined with 
the soft violet light of early dawn, which shines upon the Virgin's image and 
upon the white head of the old hermit bending over his violin. The general 
tone of the picture is quiet, almost subdued, but a few bright spots of color 
the blue of the Virgin's mantle, the wings of the standing angel, and the green 
of he bit of turf prevent all monotony. 

The picture is on wood, and measures about three feet high by two feet 
three inches wide. It was painted in Florence in 1882, and three years later 
was bought by the National Gallery of Berlin, where it now hangs. 

THE ISLAND OF DEATH' PLATE II 

' TN the spring of 1880," writes Baron von Ostini, "Bocklin completed that 
JL work which contains the very essence of his art, and with which his name 
is so indissolubly linked that when we hear him spoken of we at once think of 
his great ' Island of Death.' No other painted landscape is so profoundly irrv- 
pr^ssi vp ; nr> other is so original in its conception, nor so moving in ite strange) 
jbeauty^_ 

T"0warcfthe shores of a lonely island a boat draws near. Across its bow rests 
a coffio_decked with flowers r beside which stands the white-robed figure of the 
dead "A few more strokes of the oars and the goal will be reached the 
rocky islancTwith its dark cypress-trees. Within the steep sides of thelx>ck are 
many chambers of the dead. He who now approaches will not be alone, for 
even as he is not the first, so will he not be the last to be rowed across the still 
waters to the island of death." 

^_least six different versions of this subject exist, Different not only in de- 
tails of composition, but in the scheme of color. Some are gray and somber, 
while others are light in tone. In the one here reproduced, belonging to Frau 
Schon-Renz, Worms, Germany, the rocks are of varied hues, the water is deep 
greenish-blue, almost black in the shadows, and the sky, dark and ominous at 
the sides of the picture, is luminous in the center with a lurid light ranging 
from pale orange to flame-color. 

[120] 



BOCKLIN 37 

'THE SPORT OF THE WAVES' PLATE III 

OF all Bocklin's representations of the sea, the one here reproduced is the 
most celebrated. The marvelous effect of moving water, the colors both 
above and beneath its ever-changing surface, the strange half-human quality 
of these sea-creatures, and the boisterous humor of the scene all combine in 
making it one of the most marvelous of the artist's creations. 

M. Jules Laforgue has said of this picture: "'The Sport of the Waves' pro- 
duces a vivid and realistic sense of mid-ocean, with the restless waves, blue 
and green in color, reflecting their swaying shadows. An agile little mermaid, 
not very graceful in form, whose feet with their fin-like attachments are lifted 
high in the air, plunges into the deep green water. Astounded by the sight, a 
monstrous centaur, with bloodshot eyes, streaming hair, and huge paunch 
shining like a copper kettle, pauses in his pursuit, his arms outstretched as he 
beats the water with his great hoofs. In the foreground swims a faun-like 
creature with pointed ears and yellow beard. His breast is shaggy with that 
kind of soapy moss which covers stones in stagnant waters, his seaweed hair 
is crowned with white flowers, and his flushed and gleaming face is distorted 
with wanton laughter as he gleefully drags along a fair young mermaid whose 
white body ends in a fish's tail with scales of gold and emerald and mother-of- 
pearl. Her silvery locks are wreathed with crimson seaweed, her eyes are of 
the hue that changes from green to sapphire blue, and on her face is an expres- 
sion of fear and anguish. In the upper part of the picture is another siren 
swimming on her back, and in the center is seen a head which looks like a ball 
of copper with fins at the nape of its neck, puffing and blowing as it emerges 
from the waves." 

Bocklin, as the writer says further, may be criticized for his drawing which 
is not always faultless. For the effect of his pictures he depends almost as 
much upon his daring and often fantastic color-schemes as upon his surprising 
and original conceptions. "But after all," adds M. Laforgue, "technical skill 
is possessed by many, but there is only one Bocklin in the world, and it is to 
describe just such natures as his that the word genius was invented." 

'The Sport of the Waves' (Das Spiel der Wellen) was painted in Florence 
in 1883. The canvas, which measures about six feet high by nearly eight 
feet wide, is now in the New Pinakothek, Munich. 

THE ROCKY GORGE* PLATE IV 

ONCE when Bocklin was crossing the St. Gotthard Pass at nightfall he 
found himself enveloped in so dense a fog that it was with difficulty the 
path was kept. All sorts of weird fancies filled his brain, and Goethe's well- 
known words from 'Mignon's Song' came at once to his mind: 

"Know'st thou the mountain where, hidden in clouds, 
The mule seeks the path which the vapor enshrouds? 
Where horrible dragons in caves rear their broods, 
And rocks are uprooted by storms and by floods?" 

[121] 



38 MASTERS IN ART 

With the recollection of his gruesome experience in mind, the artist painted 
this picture (Die Felsenschlucht), in which we are shown a ravine in the 
Alps, where a party of travelers with their well-laden mules are overtaken by 
approaching night. Suddenly, to their horror, a monstrous dragon appears, 
craning his long neck towards them as he crawls slowly forth through the mist 
from his rocky den. 

The picture is strongly and realistically painted, and offers a striking ex- 
ample of the artist's imaginative powers. It was executed in Basle in 1870, 
and is now in the Schack Gallery, Munich. 

'THE VILLA BY THE SEA' PLATE v 

*' I ^HE Villa by the Sea,' painted in Rome in 1864, after Bocklin's visit to 
A Naples and Capri, is one of the artist's most beautiful renderings of 
nature in a minor key. Upon a rocky shore stands an old Italian villa, its 
marble walls and the statues which once adorned its garden almost hidden by 
dark cypress-trees whose tops are swayed by the wind. Lower down, upon the 
beach, stands a woman clad from head to foot in mourning garments, leaning 
against the rocks as she gazes sorrowfully over the water which breaks in 
waves at her feet. A leaden sky enhances the indescribable sadness which per- 
vades the picture and imparts itself to the spectator. 

"In the measured beating of the waves upon the shore," writes Henri 
Mendelsohn, "we seem to hear the swan-song of a mighty past. May not this 
mourning woman be some Iphigenia yearning for the lost land of Greece ? 
Such a thought was in the artist's mind, for he says that in this melancholy 
figure he wished to represent the last survivor of a vanished race." 

Bocklin painted no fewer than five versions of this subject, no two of which 
are alike. The one here reproduced is the second, and, together with the first 
version, is now in the Schack Gallery, Munich. It measures about four feet 
high by five feet eight inches wide. 

THE ISLAND OF LIFE' PLATE VI 

BOCKLIN painted this picture, called in German 'Das Lebensinsel,' in 
Zurich in 1888, partly as a variant of his work entitled 'The Regions of 
the Blessed' (Die Gefilde der Seligen), and partly as a companion to his 
' Island of Death.' 

Upon a fairy isle crowned with slender poplars and tropical palms, happy 
mortals are seen dancing hand in hand upon the green turf. A summer sky 
smiles above them, and in the clear water beneath, their forms reflected in its 
glassy surface, strange beings from some imaginary realm swim gracefully 
around the rocky shores, while swans float leisurely upon the tranquil sea. 
All is light and sunshine in this happy spot which forms a striking contrast to 
the mysterious sadness, the solemn peace, of 'The Island of Death.' 

The picture is owned by Herr Emil Olbermann, Cologne. 



[122] 



BOCKLIN 39 

<VITA SOMNIUM BREVE' PLATE VII 

"TN this picture," writes Baron von Ostini, "Bocklin may be said to have 
A reached the highest point of his achievement. After much thought and 
numerous experiments, the composition as it now stands finally took shape, 
assuredly one of the most original and significant of the countless representa- 
tions of the four ages of man which either modern or ancient art has pro- 
duced." 

From a sphinx head in a marble framework bearing the motto VITA SOMNIUM 
BREVE (Life is a brief dream) flows the stream of life. Its deep blue waters 
wind through a green meadow bright with dandelions and daisies, and on the 
borders of the stream two little children are playing. One with pale golden 
hair is pressing a handful of flowers against his breast as he casts them one by 
one upon the clear water; the other, a charming little fellow with reddish curls, 
rests his chubby hands upon the ground as he bends forward to watch a daisy 
borne away by the current of the stream. In the center of the picture, on the 
right of the fountain, stands a young woman clasping flowers in her upraised 
hands as she gazes dreamily into the distance. Her gauzy drapery of deep blue 
sprinkled with gold stars contrasts with the beautiful flesh-tones of her nude 
body and the rich red of her hair. Farther back, upon the left, beneath a group 
of trees, a helmeted knight, clad in red and with his lance in hand, rides forth 
upon his steed into the unknown world beyond. In the distance, his bent form 
in its long brown robe silhouetted against the cloud-flecked blue sky, is seated 
an old man, unconscious that behind him, Death, with club upraised, stands 
even at that very moment ready to strike the fatal blow. 

The picture was painted in Zurich in 1 888, and is now in the Basle Museum. 
It is on wood, and measures about five feet nine inches high by three feet eight 
inches wide. 

'PAN FRIGHTENING A GOATHERD' PLATE VIII 

DURING Bb'cklin's two years' sojourn in Weimar (1860-62), he finished 
this picture which had been begun in Munich. It is midday, and among 
the rocks a goatherd has been watching his flock of long-haired goats, when 
suddenly the silence is broken by the sound of a falling stone. A shrill cry 
is heard, and to the man's only half-awakened senses the sound seems un- 
earthly, and at once suggests that the great god Pan is there among the rocks, 
with his mocking faun's face. Seized with unreasoning fear, the goatherd runs 
as fast as his feet can carry him, nor once turns to cast a backward glance. 
His arms are flung over his head, his mantle floats behind him in the breeze, 
while the gourd used as a flask for his daily quota of wine, and now held by a 
string in one of his upraised hands, swings back and forth, pendulum-wise, in 
his hasty descent of the hillside, while from his rocky seat above, Pan laughs 
aloud in malicious glee to see how man and beast fly from his uncanny pres- 
ence. It has been said that in this picture Bocklin accomplished that which 
established his place in the history of art: "the imparting of life to nature, and 
the rehabilitation of old myths." 

[123] 



40 MASTERS IN ART 

'Pan erschrekt einen Hirten,' to call the painting by its German title, is 
now in the Schack Gallery, Munich. It measures four feet four inches high 
by about three and a half feet wide. 

THE SACRED GROVE' PLATE IX 

BOCKLIN'S celebrated picture entitled 'The Sacred Grove' (Der heilige 
Hain) was painted in Florence in 1883. In the depth of a dark grove of 
trees the columns of a marble temple are dimly discernible, while from this 
sacred edifice white-robed priests advance with slow and stately step towards 
a sacrificial fire before which two worshipers prostrate themselves in prayer. 
The composition is balanced, and the colors, chiefly black, white, and green, 
form a scheme that is highly decorative in its effect. A group of delicately 
painted birch-trees on the left, their white trunks reflected in the pool beneath, 
form a marked contrast to the clusters of massive dark-leaved oaks on the 
right. No other work of Bocklin's, with the exception of his ' Island of Death,' 
produces an impression of such deep s^bnmity^mdpeace.^^ 

The canvas is now in the Basle Museum. It measures about three and a 
half feet high by nearly five feet wide. 

NAIADS AT PLAY' PLATE X 

BOCKLIN'S picture of 'Naiads at Play' was painted in Zurich in 1886, 
and is now in the Basle Museum. In describing this work Henri Men- 
delsohn writes: "It fairly bubbles over with fun and merriment. The scene 
represents a rock in the ocean, over which the waves dash in foam, tossing 
white spray high into the air. Clinging fast to the wet rock are the gleaming 
forms of naiads, their tails shining like jewels in the seething waters, and, 
as the waves dash one on top of another, so do these creatures of the sea chase 
each other in their frolic, darting here and diving there, and tumbling heels 
over head from the rock into the ocean beneath, whose roar almost drowns 
their shrill laughter. All is life and movement. The sputtering triton and the 
luckless baby, holding in his convulsive clasp the prize he has captured, a lit- 
tle fish, rank among the inimitable creations of Bocklin's art." 

In speaking of the somewhat startling effect of the colors in this picture, the 
Comte de Montesquieu says: "This is the most astonishing of all Bocklin's 
representations of the sea. The water gleams with hues as violent as those 
reflected by the Faraglioni, the red rocks which, seen from Capri, mirror their 
purple shadows in the blue waves. One of the naiads, with her back turned 
to us, seems to set the water on fire with the brilliancy of her orange-colored 
hair, while all the naiads' tails, wet and glistening, glow with the gorgeous 
hues of butterflies' wings or the petals of brilliant flowers." 

The picture is on canvas, and measures nearly five feet high by five feet 
eight inches wide, 



[124] 



BOCK LIN 41 

A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL PAINTINGS BY BOCKLIN 
IN PUBLIC COLLECTIONS 

FOR more complete lists pf Bocklin' s works than it is possible to give in the present 
limited space, the reader is referred to the publication entitled 'Arnold Bocklin. Eine 
Auswahl seiner hervorragendsten Werke,' etc. (Photographische Union, Munich, 1893- 
1901), and to Henri Mendelsohn's monograph on the artist (Berlin, 1901). Many of 
Bocklin's paintings, indeed the greater number, are in private possession, principally in 
Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. The following list includes only those which are in col- 
lections accessible to the public. 

AUSTRIA. VIENNA, MODERN GALLERY: An Idyl of the Sea; Portrait of Lenbach 
JL GERMANY. BERLIN NATIONAL GALLERY: The Regions of the Blessed; The 
Hermit (Plate i); Pieta; The Descent from the Cross; Surf of the Sea; A Spring Day; 
Centaur and Nymph; Portrait of Wallenreiter; Portrait of Bocklin (Page 106); Portrait of 
Fr. Dr. Fiedler BREMEN, KUNSTHALLE: The Adventurer BRESLAU, SILESIAN MU- 
SEUM: Lute-player; Sanctuary of Hercules; Castle attacked by Pirates CARLSRUHE, MU- 
SEUM: Poverty and Care COLOGNE, MUSEUM: Castle attacked by Pirates DRESDEN, 
ROYAL GALLERY: Syrinx fleeing from Pan; Family of Fauns; War; A Summer Day; 
Springtime FRANKFORT, STADEL INSTITUTE: Villa by the Sea HAMBURG, KUNST- 
HALLE: Silence of the Forest; Portrait of Bocklin; Portrait of Augusto Fratelli LEIPSIC, 
MUSEUM: The Island of Death; A Spring Song MAGDEBURG, MUSEUM: Family of 
Tritons MUNICH, NEW PINAKOTHEK: Pan among the Reeds; Sport of the Waves 
(Plate in) MUNICH, SCHACK GALLERY: Ideal Landscape; The Anchorite; Pan fright- 
ening a Goatherd (Plate vin); The Villa by the Sea (Plate v); The Villa by the Sea; The 
Shepherd's Lament; Murderer pursued by Furies; The Rocky Gorge (Plate iv); A Shep- 
herdess and her Flock; Ideal Spring Landscape; The Road to Emmaus; A Sacred Grove; 
Old Roman Tavern in Spring; The Ride of Death; Italian Villain Spring; Nereid and Triton 
STUTTGART GALLERY: Villa by the Sea; Roman Landscape SWITZERLAND. 
AARAU, SOCIETY OF ART: Muse of Anacreon BASLE, MUSEUM: [STAIRCASE] 
(frescos) Birth of Gaa; Flora with her Children; Apollo; Medusa; [PICTURE GALLERY] 
Naiads at Play (Plate x); Vita Somnium Breve (Plate vn); Portrait of the Artist in his 
Studio; Melancholy; Diana Hunting; Viola; Mary Magdalene weeping over the Body of 
Christ; Battle of Centaurs; Odysseus and Calypso; Petrarch; The Sacred Grove (Plate 
ix); The Plague (unfinished); Portrait of Luise Schmidt; Portrait of Prof. Jacob Mahly; 
Head of a Roman; Two Landscapes; Two Mountain Scenes BASLE, SOCIETY OF 
ARTISTS: Portrait of Frau Bocklin as a Muse BERNE, MUSEUM: The Silence of the 
Ocean LUCERNE, MUSEUM: Landscape with Moors ZURICH, SOCIETY OF ARTISTS: 
The Awakening of Spring; In the Arbor. 



Bockltn 



A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL BOOKS AND MAGAZINE ARTICLES 
DEALING WITH BOCKLIN 

ARNOLD BOCKLIN. Eine Auswahl seiner hervorragendsten Werke in Photogravure 
mit einer Biographic des Kiinstlers von Prof. H. A. Schmid. Munich, 1893-1901 
BERGGRUEN, O. Auserlesene Gemalde der Galerie Schack. Vienna, 1886 COOK, C. C. 
Art and Artists of Our Time. New York [1888] FENDLER, A. Fiinfzehn Holzschnitte 
nach Gemalde von Bocklin. Leipsic [1898] FLOERKE, G. Zehn Jahre mit Bocklin. 
Munich, 1901 FREY, A. Arnold Bocklin, nach den Erinnerungen seiner Zurcher 
Freunde. Stuttgart, 1903 GRIMM, H. Zehn ausgewahlte Essays. Berlin, 1883 

[125]' 



42 MASTERS IN ART 

GRIMM, H. Fragmente. Berlin, 1900 HAACK, F. Die Kunst des xix Jahrhunderts. 
Stuttgart, 1905 HAENDTKE, B. Bocklin in seiner historischen und kunstlerischen Ent- 
wicklung. Hamburg, 1890 HANSSON, O. SeherundDeuter. Berlin, 1894 LASIUS, O. 
Arnold Bocklin. Berlin, 1903 LEHRS, M. Arnold Bocklin, ein Leitfaden zum Verstandniss 
seiner Kunst. Munich, 1897 LICHTWARK, A. DieSeeleund das Kunstwerk. Berlin, 1900 

MANSKOPF, J. Bocklin' s Kunst und die Religion. Munich, 1905 MEIER-GRAEFE, J. 
Entwickelungsgeschichte der modernen Kunst. Stuttgart, 1904 MEISSNER, F. H. 
Arnold Bocklin. Berlin, 1898 MENDELSOHN, H. Bocklin. Berlin,i9oi MUTHER, R. 
The History of Modern Painting. London, 1895 OSTINI, F. VON. Arnold Bocklin. 
Leipsic, 1904 PECHT, F. Deutsche Kiinstler des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. Nordlingen, 

1887 RITTER, W. Arnold Bocklin. Ghent, 1893 SCHACK, GRAF v. Meine 
Gemaldesammlung. Stuttgart, 1881 SEIDEL, P. Die Werke Bocklins in der Schack- 
galerie zu Miinchen. Munich, 1902 TSCHUDI, H. v. Die Werke Bocklins in der Kgl. 
Nationalgalerie in Berlin. Munich, 1901. 

MAGAZINE ARTICLES 

ARCHITECTURAL RECORD, 1903: H. Lespinasse; Bocklin as a Sculptor of the 
XA. Grotesque L'ARTE, 1901: A. Colasanti; La mostra Bocklin. 1901: W. von 
Seidlitz; Notizie di Germania ARTIST, 1901: S. C. de Soissons; Arnold Bocklin 
ART JOURNAL, 1888: H. Zimmern; Arnold Bocklin. 1904: A. MacMahon; Arnold 
Bocklin BASLER JAHRBUCH, 1902: A. von Salis; Erinnerungen an Bocklin CON- 
TEMPORARY REVIEW, 1905: S. C. de Soissons; Arnold Bocklin CRAFTSMAN, 1905: 
A. von Ende ; Arnold Bocklin CRITIC, 1901: C. Brinton ; Arnold Bocklin 
DEUTSCHE REVUE, 1895: J. Mahly; Aus Bocklin' s Lehrjahren GAZETTE DES BEAUX- 
ARTS, 1883: J. Laforgue; Le Salon de Berlin. 1893: F. H. Meissner; Arnold Bocklin 

GEGENWART, 1890: H. Kaatz; Der Realismus Bocklins. 1890: C. Sterne; Bocklin's 
Kabelwesen im Lichte der org^nischen Formenlehre DIE KUNST, 1900: P.Schumann; 
Arnold Bocklin. 1901 : H. von Tschudi; Arnold Bocklin. 1902: Gustav Floerke; Wie 
urteilte Bocklin uber moderne Malerei? 1902: G. Floerke; Zur kunstlerischen Charakter- 
istik Bocklins. 1902: H. von Tschudi; Die Werke Arnold Bocklins in der Kgl. Na- 
tionalgalerit zu Berlin. 1902: G. Winkler; Graf Schack und Bocklin. 1902: H. Wolfflin; 
Arnold Bocklin. 1905^. Manskopf; Bocklin's Kindergestalten. 1905: H. A. Schmid; 
Meier-Graefe contra Bocklin KUNST FUR ALLE, 1886: H. Helferich; Schweizer 
Reisebuch. 1887: F. Pecht; Zu Bocklin's sechzigstem Geburtstag. 1894: C. Gurlitt; 
Arnold Bocklin KUNST UNSERER ZEiT,i894: F. H. Meissner; Arnold Bocklin. 1904: 
F. von Ostini; Arnold Bocklin MAGAZINE OF ART, 1885: C. Phillips; Arnold Bocklin 

NATION, 1898: K. Francke; Arnold Bocklin NOUVELLE REVUE, 1897: R. comte 
de Montesquieu; Arnold Bocklin PAN, 1897: H. A. Schmid; Arnold Bocklin. 1898: 
F. Laban; Der Musaget Bocklins.. 1898: A. Lichtwark; Die Bocklin Ausstellung 
in Berlin und Hamburg. 1898: H. A. Schmid; Bocklins Skizzen. 1898: R. Schick; 
Tagebuch-Aufzeichi.ungen uber Arnold Bocklin, herausgegeben von H. von Tschudi 
PREUSSISCHE JAHRBUCHER, 1893: K. Neumann; Arnold Bocklin. 1898: C. Broicher; 
Von den Ausstellungen in Basel und Berlin REVUE DES DEUX-MONDES, 1897: E. Rod; 
Le Jubile d'un artiste Balois SEWANEE REVIEW, 1902: G. B. Rose; Arnold Bocklin 
STUDIO, 1896: H. Singer; On the Work of Bocklin UBER LAND UND MEER, 1897: 
C. Bocklin; Arnold Bocklin UNSERE ZEIT, 1888: Fritz Lemmermayer; Arnold Bocklin 

VOM FELS ZUM MEER, 1884: E. Koppel; Arnold Bocklin WESTERMANNS MONATS- 
HEFTE, 1884: O. Baisch; Arnold Bocklin ZEITSCHRIFT FUR BILDENDE KUNST, 1897- 
98: F. Haack; Arnold Bocklin zu seinem 70 Geburtstage. 

[120J 




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William M. Chase, Susan F. Bissell, Douglas 
John Connah. Robert Henri, Rockwell Kent, 
Kenneth Hayes Miller, Frank Alvah Parsons, 
Edward Penfield, George H. Shorey. 



Circulars, giving full information, mailed 
upon application to the Secretary, 

SUSAN F. BISSELL 

57 West 57th Street 



art ^tutients' ileague 

of jijeto gorfe 

Winter Term from October 2, 1905, 
to June i, 1906 

Classes in Antique Drawing, Life Drawing and Paint- 
ing, Portrait, Still Life, and Miniature Painting, Model- 
ing, Illustration, Mural Decoration, Composition, Cos- 
tume and Life Sketch. Lectures on Anatomy and 
Perspective. 



George DeForrest Brush 
Howard Pylc 
Kenyon Cox 
Frank Vincent DuMond 
Henry Reuterdahl 
Chas. W. Hawthorne 
George B. Bridgman 
Will Howe Foote 



Hugo Ballin 
Hermon A. MacNeil 
Alice Eeckington 
Rhoda Holmes Nichollt 
Wallace Morgan 
Edwin C. Taylor 
Thomas J. Fogarty 
Leon Narcisse Gillette 



NEW YORK SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 

Theory of Design, Costume Design, Interior Dscora- 
tion, Normal Art Training, Handicrafts. 

ELISA A. SARGENT, Director 

Catalogues on application. 

Address all communications to 

Art Students' League of New York 

215 West syth Street, New York 



In answering advertisements, please mention MASTERS IN ART. 



"THE ARISTOCRAT OF MUSICAL PUBLICATIONS" 




in 



A SERIES OF THIRTY-SIX MONOGRAPHS OF THE GREAT COMPOSERS 

Edited by DANIEL GREGORY MASON 

Author of " From Grieg to Brahms " and ' Beethoven and His Forerunners " 

EACH number of Masters in Music y complete in itself, presents a com- 
prehensive summary of the life and achievement of one of the great 
musicians of the world, with 32 pages of (i\usic, those compositions being se- 
lected which, in the opinion of competent judges, best manifest the composer's 
genius. They are arranged for the piano or piano and voice, as the case may 
be. These compositions are accompanied by notes pointing out the charac- 
teristics of each selection and suggesting : ts best interpretation. A beautiful 
portrait frontispiece, quotations from the most eminent critics, and a bibli- 
ography and a list of works complete the number, forming a concise yet com- 
plete handbook for the study of the composer to whom it is devoted. 

Content? 

Volume I. Mozart, Chopin, Gounod, Mendelssohn, Grief, and Raff. 
Volume II. Verdi, Haydn, Bizet, Beethoven (two numbers), and HandeL 
Volume III. Weber, Franz, Liszt, Purcell, Strauss, The Scarlattis. 
Volume IV. Rossini, Dvorak, Schubert (two numbers), Tschaikowsky, 

and Bach. 
Volume V. Schumann (two numbers), Cesar Franck, Meyerbeer, 

Brahms (two numbers). 
Volume VI. Rubinstein, Bellini and Donizetti, Gluck, Saint-Sains, Wag- 

ner (two numbers). 

Price, per volume of six numbers, $1.25, post-paid. 

Single numbers, 25 cents each. 

P* A secures 36 parts, comprising 1,152 pages of classical music, care- 
<3U fully engraved and printed, and 576 pages of instructive and 
interesting reading-matter, with 36 frontispiece portrait plates 1,800 pages 
a musical library in itself. 

We will send the complete set, express prepaid, on receipt of $2.50 and 
your promise to complete the purchase by five monthly payments of $1.00 
each. 

BATES & GUILD COM PA NY, PUBLISHERS 
42 CHAUNCY STREET, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 

In answering advertisements, please mention MASTERS IN ART 






PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



ND 

588 

B6AM 

1906 

C.I 

ROBA